• Keep on your left, allowing the vehicles from the opposite direction to pass.
  • Give way to traffic on your right, especially at road junctions and round abouts.
  • While turning either left or right, give way to vehicles going straight.
  • While turning left, keep to the left side and turn close to the left side of the road to which you enter.
  • Slow down at the junctions, intersections and pedestrian crossings. Also slow down near school zones, temple areas etc., where a lot of pedestrians and vehicle traffic move. Give signals before you make any manoeuvre, indicating your intention, so that the other road users can adjust accordingly.
  • Always use a helmet if on a two-wheeler and always check that the strap is fixed properly.
  • Stick to the given speed limit and remember that speed limit is related to the traffic condition.
  • Keep enough distance from the vehicle ahead to avoid collision.
  • Yellow lines should not be crossed under any condition.
  • At junctions or intersections, never park the vehicle beyond the stop line.
  • At pedestrian crossings always remember that the pedestrian has the right of way.
  • At the signal, do not stop your vehicle on the Pedestrian Crossing.
  • Two-wheelers are meant only for two. Third person is not allowed, even children.
  • Do not start your vehicle on the amber light. Wait for the light to turn green.
  • Overtake only from the right side of a vehicle. Never overtake on bridges, narrow roads, junctions, school zones and pedestrian crossings.
  • Do not drive in a zig-zag manner.


Defensive driving can save lives.


Always be a defensive driver. Check your vehicle properly whether it is well maintained or not before driving. Avoid driving when you are tired because this can decrease your concentration level. To overcome tiredness, put off the road for some exercise and fresh air or have a cup of coffee. One more thing to remember is that never allow your emotions to dominte your driving.


· Concentrate on driving, not on passengers, mobile phones, or other distractions.

· Never overtake within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossing and never change the lane suddenly by cutting in front of another   vehicles.

· Never mix Drink with Drive.

· National Maximum Speed Limit for a Light Motor Vehicle & a Transport Vehicle is 65 Km/Hr.

· Traffic Signal - Red is for STOP, green for GO and yellow for GET PREPARED, either to stop or to go.

· Violation of traffic rule is punishable and so also violation of Provisions of Motor Vehicles Act.


Red is for STOP

Green for GO


Either to stop or to go.


Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals or stop light, is a signalling device that is positioned at a road intersection, pedestrian crossing, or other location to indicate when it is safe to drive, ride, or walk using a universal color code. In general, traffic signal have two main lights, red and green. In India yellow (or amber) is also included to mean 'prepare to stop.' To support for people with red-green color blindness, red light contains some orange in its hue and green contains blue.

sudheekshan traffic signal red

The color 'red' on the signal light indicates to stop well before the stop line and not to crowd the intersection. Turn left in a red signal only when there is a sign to do so. While turning, yield the right of way to pedestrians and vehicles coming from other directions.

sudheekshan traffic signal red
Amber (Yellow)

The amber (or yellow) light indicates to clear the road when the signal is changing from green to red. If, by mistake, caught in the amber signal in the middle of a large road crossing, continue with care and do not accelerate in panic.

sudheekshan traffic signal red Green

The signal light 'green' set you to go but be careful while on the start of move. Check whether vehicles from other directions have cleared the road. Suppose you want to turn left or right, check the signal whether it allows or not separately. If yes, turn but yield the right of way to pedestrians and vehicles from other directions.

sudheekshan traffic signal red Steady Green Arrow Signal

This indicates to proceed with caution in the direction the arrow points. Remember to yield to all pedestrians and vehicles already in the intersection.

sudheekshan traffic signal red Flashing Red Signal

Flashing red means to come to a complete stop. Do not forget to yield to all other traffic and to pedestrians. Proceed only when the way is clear.

sudheekshan traffic signal red Flashing Amber Signal

Flashing amber indicates to slow down and proceed with caution

Traffic Violations

Violation of traffic rules in India is punishable and so also violation of Provisions of Motor Vehicles Act.


Traffic Violations Law lead to punishment. The penalty can be a fine or even imprisonment. The violation can be overspeeding, racing in a public road, dangerous driving, drunken driving, unattended vehicle or any other act that is a hindrance to a smooth traffic. The following are few of the traffic violations according to the Motor Vehicle Act.

· Driving a vehicle under the influence of liquor (Sec. 185 Motor Vehicle Act).

· Driving without valid Driving Licence (See. 3 rd with Sec. 181, Motor Vehicle Act).

· Driving at Speeds that exceed limits (Sec. 183, M.V.Act)

· Driving with only one light in front (Rule 37 (xii) read with Sec. 177, Motor Vehicle Act).

· Using dazzling lights (Rule 405 read with Sec. 197, M.V. Act).

· Using the horns in a forbidden area (Rule 403 read with Sec. 177, Motor Vehicle Act).

· Use of air horn / musical horn (Rule 402 Motor Vehicle Act).

· Parking in no parking areas (Rule 37(x)read with Sec. 177, M.V. Act).

· Vehicle emitting excess smoke (Rule 115 (I) C.M.V. Rule).

· Failure to give proper signals (Sec. 121 read with Sec. 117, M.V.Act).

· Rash driving (Sec. 184, M.V. Act).

· Failure to stop vehicle when required by any Police Officer in Uniform (Sec. 132 read with Sec. 177, M.V. Act).

· Non-compliance of directions given by any Police Officer in the regulation of traffic in public places (Sec. 119, M.V. Act read   with 179, M.V. Act).

· Failure to observe the rule of the road (Rule 37(i) read with Sec. 177 M.V. Act).

· Violations of all restrictions, (Rule 411 read with Sec. 177 M.V. Act).

Auto Parking

Basic Parking Rule

· Do not park any vehicle on the part of a road where traffic is flowing. Drive the vehicle off the road onto the shoulder while   stopping.

· Do not park in such a place where one do not have a clear view for at least 50 meters in both the directions.

· Do not park in a place that blocks a vehicle already parked, a sidewalk, crosswalk, pedestrian crossing or road entrance.

· Do not park near the public entrance to a hotel, theatre or public hall when it is open to the public.

· Do not park near any intersection or a round-about.

· Before opening the door of the parked vehicle, look around. Close the door the moment one gets down.

· Park the vehicle on the left side in the direction of the traffic.

Note: After parking, turn off the ignition and the lights.

Parallel Parking

The term parallel parking means parking the vehicle in a line i.e. front to rear. The parking area should be one and half times longer than the vehicle to be parked. Check the following rules for parallel parking:

· Slowly reverse into the space provided for parking, turning the steering wheel anti-clockwise. Take care that you have   cleared the vehicle ahead.

· After seeing the outside rear corner of the vehicle in front of your space, turn the steering wheel clockwise. Do not forget to   look back so that you do not hit the vehicle already parked behind you.

· Bring the vehicle in line with the curb.

· If the vehicle is not parallel to the curb, drive forward to straighten. Make sure the wheels of the car are straight.

· After the vehicle is properly parked, pull the handbrake and shift into first or reverse gear. Turn off the engine and remove   the key from the ignition.

· Check the traffic before opening door of the vehicle.

Angular Parking

The term angular parking means parking the vehicle at an angle to the curb of the road. The following basic rules is to be followed in angular parking.

· First and foremost look through the mirrors and over the shoulder for traffic behind you.

· Give the left indicator to signal to the vehicle behind that you intend to park the vehicle.

· Steer into the provided parking space and straighten the wheels.

· Keep equal distance on both the sides, pull the handbrake and shift into first or reverse gear.

For Exit: Look through the rear view mirrors and over the shoulder, if the way is clear then reverse slowly. Check that there is no vehicle, take extra care of cycles, rickshaws and pedestrians.

Perpendicular Parking

By perpendicular parking it means that parking at right angle of the road curb. Always reverse the vehicle in the parking space so that you can exit comfortably.

· Pass ahead of the parked vehicle next to available space.

· Look through the rear view mirrors and over the shoulder for clear traffic.

· Turn the steering anti-clockwise and reverse slowly until you are in the centre of the parking space.

· Close the window and lock the vehicle.

For Exit: Move the vehicle very slowly in order to get a clear view of the road. Look on both the sides, indicate and move the vehicle out.

Parking at Night

Try to park vehicles in a lighted place at night. If it is complete dark, turn the parking light on.

Precautions While Passing Parked Vehicles

· Be careful while passing by a parked vehicle. Never open the door without looking.

· Beaware, a child might be playing and can come in front of your vehicle hiddenly. Roadside Stop

In an emergency, if you have to stop by the side of the road, make sure the stop is very short.

· Give signal that you want to pull over and check your mirrors and blind spot to see when the way is clear.

· Steer to the side of the road, stopping very close to the curb or edge of the road.

· Put on the four way emergency lights.

· Apply handbrakes.

What Not to Do while Parking

Do not park:

· On a foot path.

· Near traffic crossing, round-about or a turn.

· On the main road.

· Where your vehicle obstructs traffic.

· On wrong side of the road.

· Where parking is prohibited.

Vehicle Papers

What are vehicle papers? What automotive papers to carry while you are on drive? Know what auto paper in India to carry? Learn everything in details here in this section because while on the move, it is very important to keep the necessary papers in the vehicle for the purpose of being checked by the traffic police or otherwise required at any time. The following are the necessary documents to be kept in the non-transport vehicle:

· Valid Driving License

· Proof of valid certificate of registration

· Proof of valid certificate of insurance

· Proof of tax payment

· Fitness certificate

· Pollution Under Control (P.U.C) certificate

· Insurance cover note, tax payment receipt and renewal of registration certificate (if required) are valid evidence.

· Xerox copies of the original documents (attested by a gazetted officer) are also acceptable. However if the demanding    authority wants to see the original documents, the owner must produce them within 15 days.

· A Xerox copy of the driving license is not acceptable

In case the driving license is confiscated or submitted to the authorities, the receipt given against that works in lieu of the license. So it should also be carried with the vehicle and in original form.

The Officers from the following Authorities can demand documents of the vehicle for inspection:

· Police Department

· State Tranport Authority

Automobile First Aid Kit


First Aid is the initial care given to the accident victim. Many deaths and impact of injuries are prevented with First Aid if the casualities are treated immediately. This timely care means the difference between life and death. The care should continue till the arrival of medical help. Overview

Automobile first aid kit refers to the simple first aid kit which has to be carried everytime when you are on drive. Auto first aid kits contain the basic medicines, bandages and other medicated accessories that are required just after the injury.

As auto CDs and a bottle of drinking water is required while you are on drive, automotive first aid kit is also necessary. So never forget to carry it. Basic Aims of First Aid Kit

What should be the main purpose of first aid kit. Know the basic aims of the kit here.

· To save life.

· To protect the casualty from getting more harm.

· To reduce pain.

Note: It is necessary to keep a first Aid kit while driving.

First Aid Kit
  • Extra-strength non-aspirin tablets
  • Ibuprofen tablets
  • Antibiotic ointment packs
  • Alcohol cleansing pads
  • Finger splint
  • Sterile eye pad
  • Non-stick pad
  • First aid tape roll
  • Torch with flash light
  • Butterfly wound closures
  • Motion sickness tablets
  • Burn relief gel pack
  • Antiseptic cleansing wipes
  • Conforming gauze roll bandage
  • Trauma pad
  • Gauze dressing pads
  • Elbow & knee plastic bandage
  • Call police banner
  • Accident report form
  • First Aid Guide
  • Fingertip fabric bandages
  • Adhesive plastic bandages
  • Exam quality vinyl gloves
  • Cotton tipped applicators
  • Medium safety pins
  • Scissors
  • Knuckle fabric bandages
  • Patch plastic bandage
  • Junior adhesive plastic bandages
  • Instant cold compress
  • Driving Speed in India

    National Maximum Speed Limit for a Light Motor Vehicle & a Transport Vehicle is 65 Km/Hr.


    Vehicles on the roads are allowed to ply under a ceiling of Speed Limit also called the maximum speed limit. Driving speed are fixed by the Central Government, the authorised body. It has fixed Maximum Speed Limits for different classes of vehicles at a national level. The State Governments have been authorised to fix the Minimum & /or Maximum Speed Limits provided that such maximum speed shall in no case exceed the maximum fixed for any motor vehicle or class or description of motor vehicles by Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette.
    There is a variation in the Speed Limits for different kinds of vehicles in the states of India.

    Motor Vehicle Act'88

    No person shall drive a motor vehicle or cause or allow a motor vehicle to be driven in any public place at a speed exceeding the maximum speed or below the minimum speed fixed for the vehicle under the Act or by any other law for the time being in force.

    Here we will discuss only the speed limit fixed by the Central Government at a national level. The following table will guide you to check the speed of your vehicle:

    Class of Motor Vehicle
    For all classes of Motor vehicles (including trailers, if any) the wheels are fitted with pneumatic tyres
    National Maximum Speed Limit Km/Hr
    Vehicle without a Trailer
    Light Motor Vehicle other than a Transport Vehicle No speed limit
    Light Motor Vehicle & a Transport Vehicle 65
    Motor Cycle 50
    Medium or Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicles 65
    Medium or Heavy Goods Vehicle 65
    Vehicle drawing a Semi-Trailer
    Articulated Vehicle, which is Heavy Goods Vehicle or Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicle 50
    Vehicle drawing not more than one Trailer ( two in case of Artillery equipment)
    Light Motor Vehicle drawing a Single Trailer, the trailer being two wheeled and the gross vehicle weight of the trailer not exceeding 800 kilograms. 60
    Light Motor Vehicle drawing a Single Trailer, the trailer has more than two wheels or a gross vehicle weight of the trailer not exceeding 800 kilograms. 50
    Medium Goods Vehicle or Medium Passenger Motor Vehicle drawing a single Trailer. 45
    Heavy Goods Vehicle Or Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicle drawing a single Trailer 40
    Heavy Goods Vehicle or Heavy Passenger Motor Vehicle drawing a single Trailer and used by the Fire Brigade 50
    Residual Category that is, any case not covered by any of the abovementioned categories 30

    Vehicle Overtaking

    Never overtake within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossing and never change the lane suddenly by cutting in front of another vehicles.


    Vehicle overtaking, also known as 'passing,' is changing lanes or driving around another vehicle to move past a slower vehicle. Do not overtake other vehicle unless you are sure that you can do so without putting yourself in a danger position. In this section we will discuss about the procedures or the guidelines of overtaking.

    Lane Designation and Vehicle Overtaking

    On highways the speed of the lanes are designated. The fastest lane is the one closest to the center of the road and the slowest to the edge of the road. Usually the following features are common on highways:

    · The lane designated for faster traffic is on the right.

    · The lane designated for slower traffic is on the left.

    · Most freeway exits are on the left.

    · Overtaking is permitted to the right, and sometimes to the left.

    Vehicle Overtaking Tips

    To overtake other vehicle or rather car overtaking as it is in lane driving, make sure that you are without danger to do so. Follow the undermentioned tips before overtaking:

    · Use the right-turn indicator to signal that you want to overtake. Be sure the way ahead and behind is clear before   overtaking.

    · Check out for scooters or motor cycles that may be hidden from view in front of the vehicle you are about to overtake. Watch   for vehicles in front that may be turning right.

    · to overtake. Watch for vehicles in front that may be turning right. Immediately after overtaking, give indicator that you want   to get back to the same lane. Get back to the previous lane when you can see all the front of the vehicle you are passing in   your rear view mirror. Do not cut off a vehicle by suddenly moving in front of it.

    · Never race if the vehicle you are passing speeds up. In this situation get back into your original lane.

    Note:- Never overtake within 30 metres of a pedestrian crossing.

    Changing Lanes

    While driving on roads with more than one lane, lane changing may be required to overtake another vehicle, to avoid a parket vehicle or when the vehicle ahead slows to turn at an intersection. Proper signal or indicator is very important while changing lanes to ensure safe move.

    Tips for Vehicle Overtaking in India:

    · Check out for a space in traffic where you can enter safely.

    · Check your blind spot by looking over your shoulder in the direction of the lane change. Give a signal or indicator in the   direction you want to move

    · Re-check to ensure the way is clear and that no one is coming at a fast speed from behind.

    · Turn steadily into the new lane.

    Note:- Never change the lane suddenly by cutting in front of another vehicles. Avoid lane change unless required and do not change in or near an intersection.

    Vehicle Overtaking at Night

    While overtaking at night be very careful. The following guidelines are very important to avoid any mishappen:

    · As you approach a vehicle from behind, switch your headlights to low beams.

    · To warn the driver ahead for overtaking switch your high beams on and off quickly.

    · Check your mirrors and blind spot perfectly, and pull out to overtake. While moving beside the vehicle, switch on your high   beams so that you can see more of the road ahead. Watch out for the vehicles that may be turning right in front of you.

    · When you are able to see all of the front of the vehicle you are overtaking in your rear view mirror, pull back into the   previous lane. Give indicator to ensure other drivers that you are getting back into the lane.

    Vehicle Overtaking on the Left

    Usually overtaking is done on the right. Passing on the left can be dangerous. Overtake from left only on multi-lane or on one-way roads. If the vehicle in front of you is turning right, you can overtake from left.

    Drinking And DrivingAlcohol affects the Central Nervous System of a person. The sense of judgement is impaired and the ability to control steering is affected.


    The teenager killed on the national highway with two other friends after losing control of the wheel as they returned from a party... Even though we may have not been hit by a story such as this, yet, we all agree that drunk driving is a life risk act.

    The task of a driver on the road is very tough. He has to overtake the slow moving vehicles, allow fast moving vehicles to overtake, move parallel to other in the adjacent lanes and coordinate with heterogeneous traffic that croses the road at random. Maintaining presence of mind is very important and many decisions is to be taken in a split of a second. A driver who is drunk cannot perform these tasks and would endanger traffic safety.

    Alcohol affects the Central Nervous System of a person. Even at BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) of 0.05 per cent the sense of judgement is impaired and the ability to control steering is affected. It is a truth that abuse of alcohol results in increased incidence of traumatic vehicular injuries and deaths.

    What Drunken Driver Lacks

    · Alertness in perceiving a danger in the road and reacting to it quickly.

    · Accuracy of vision.

    · A broad range of vision to take note of events taking place on either side of the road without turning head in either direction.

    · Ability to perceive distance between two moving objects and their relative position in space.

    · Capacity to distinguish accurately between three traffic light colours e.g. green, amber and red.

    · Ability to drive the vehicle safely during night hours.

    · Ability to recover the glare effect quickly.

    What the Motor Vehicle Act Says

    The motor vehicle Act, 1939, amended up to 1989 contains a clause 117 which reads as:

    "117 Driving by a drunken person or by a person under the influence of drugs - whoever while driving or attempting to drive a motor vehicle or riding or attempting to ride, a motor cycle - (a) has in his blood, alcohol in any quantity, howsoever small the quantity may be or (b) is under the influence of a drug to such an extent as to be incapable of exercising proper control over the vehicle shall be punishable for the first offence with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees or with both; and for a second or subsequent offence, if committed within three years of the commission of the previous similar offence, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three thousand rupees, or with both".


    Following recommendations are made for reducing accidents on Indian roads due to drunken driving:

    · There is dire need to undertake experimental studies on drugs and driving for correct assessment of traffic safety situation   on Indian roads.

    · Blood alcohol screening should be routinely performed. Equipment to accurately measure blood alcohol concentration must  be procured from other countries even if it is costly.

    · Road side liquor shops, bars and 'ahatas' should be shifted elsewhere so that the same are inaccessible to drivers.

    · Strict enforcement of Motor Vehicle Act on drunken driving is essential to check the same.

    · Cost of alcohol beverages should be enhanced so that the drivers are unable to buy the same.

    · Intensive drive against drunken driving is needed to promote road safety.

    Blood Alcohol Level (BAL)

    The effects of increasing BAL are cited below:

    · .02 per cent - mellow feeling. slight body warmth. less inhibited.

    · .05 per cent - noticeable relaxation. less alert. less self-focused. coordination impairment begins.

    · .08 per cent - drunk driving limit. definite impairment in coordination and judgment.

    · .10 per cent - noisy. possible embarrassing behavior. mood swings. reduction in reaction time.

    · .15 per cent - impaired balance and movement. clearly drunk.

    · .30 per cent - many lose consciousness.

    · .40 per cent - most lose consciousness; some die.

    · .50 per cent - breathing stops. many die.

    Distractions While Driving


    As per a research conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of USA, an estimated 25 % of 6.3 million automobile crashes reported each year involve some form of driver distractions. While driving, people should only concentrate on driving. The other things should be given less priority than driving. Always remember that someone's life depend on your driving. Follow the following tips while driving:

    Measures Taken While Driving

    · Always concentrave on driving, keep your eyes on the road and your hands on the steering wheel.

    · Don't drive in a distracted mood.

    · If possible do not involve yourself in convesations with co-passengers.

    · Use your horn sparingly and only to remind others of your presence.

    · Don't drink and drive.

    · When entering a roadway or changing lanes, allow other drivers to maintain speed.

    · Do not eat or drink while driving. Always consume food when the car is safely stopped.

    · Drive in the right or middle lane. Pass on the left.

    · Signal several hundred feet before turning or changing lanes.

    · Respect pedestrian right-of-way in cross walks.

    · Don't block intersections.

    · Obey speed limits.

    · Maintain a safe distance from the vehicle ahead.

    · Stop at stop signs and red lights. Don't run during yellow light.

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